A, The Allelopathic effects of Papavare somniferum on germination and initial seedling growth of Echinochloa cruss-galli
Allelopathic effects of Papavare somniferum on germination and initial seedling growth of Echinochloa cruss-galli
Weeds are unwanted plants in crop that can be control by different methods among them use of aqueous extract of crop is an imperative method. To investigate the allopathic potential of aqueous extract of winter crop Papavare somniferum (opium) on summer weed Echinochloa cruss-galli (barnyard grass) laboratory experiments were conducted. The experiment coomprised seven concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) of different plant parts i.e., leaves, stem and flower of P. somniferumwere. All the tested concentrations and plant parts of P. somniferum significantly reduced mean emergence time, germination index, germination percentage, time to 50% germination as well as well growth of E. cruss-galliweed. However, maximum mean emergence time (9.07 days), time to 50% germination (3.67 days) was noted at leaves and stem extract, respectively. Application of aqueous extract of stem at 8% concentration resulted in greatest time to complete 50% germination (5.42 days) and lowest fresh weight (6.28 g), dry weight (1.00 g) and root length (0.33 cm) of E. cruss-galli. Whereas leaf extract at 8% concentration produces less shoot length (1.13 cm) and more emergence time (9.18 days). Lowest emergence percentage (6.67%) and germination index (0.89) were produced by aqueous extract of fruit at 8% concentration. On the basis of this experiment, it can be concluded that higher concentration (8%) of stem extract of P. somniferumwas used to biologically control the infestation of E. cruss-galli weed.