PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP) en-US PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) 1815-1094 AGRO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ORGANIC MULCHES ON WEED DYNAMICS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RAINFED WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>Wheat is a widely grown cereal crop under rainfed conditions of semi-arid areas of the world including Pakistan. Unfortunately, its yield remains low due to heavy weed infestation and scarce moisture supply in the root zone from erratic rainfall. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to observe the influence of different organic mulches on the soil moisture, weeds, growth and yield of wheat crop. Four organic mulches i.e wheat straw sawdust, rice straw and rice husk were applied up to 2 inches surface layer between the rows of wheat crop.&nbsp; Application of wheat straw mulch conserved the highest soil moisture (72.3%) at 0-15cm depth six weeks after sowing and caused maximum weed suppression with 81.17% weed control efficiency and 63.70% weed control index as compared to unmulched control. Maximum plant height (70.8cm), productive tillers (137.33 m<sup>-2</sup>), grain weight per spike (2.37g), grains per spike (52.3), 1000-grain weight (50.66 g), biological yield (9393.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), grain yield (3665.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), harvest index (38.60%) and benefit-cost ratio (1.69) were observed in rainfed wheat crop treated with wheat straw mulch. Wheat crop total rainfall use efficiency followed the order of wheat straw &gt; rice straw &gt; saw dust&gt; rice husk&gt; control. The highest weed density and dry weight while lowest soil moisture and grain yield were recorded with no mulch and rice husk treatments.</p> Ali Raza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 01 17 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.942 A, The EXPLORING THE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF CINNAMOMUM VERUM ON EMERGENCE AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF WILD PEA (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius) <p>Crop plants release biochemicals into surrounding environment that help in obtaining maximum yield of crop by acting bioherbicide at high concentration and plant growth hormone at low concentration. Therefore, this study was planned at Department of Agronomy in Weed Science Laboratory, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during Winter 2018 to evaluate the allelopathic effects of <em>Cinnamomum verum</em> (Dalchini) on weed Wild Pea (<em>Pisum sativum subsp. elatius</em>) and determination and quantification Phenolic compound present in aqueous extract of bark of <em>C. verum</em>. The experiment was laid out under completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications. The aqueous extract of <em>C. verum</em> was used on wild pea seeds at different concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 80%). Data regarding seed germination and seedling growth (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root dry weigh) of weed was recorded following standard procedures. <em>C. verum</em> extract at higher concentration act as bioherbicide and produced inhibitory effects on <em>Pisum sativum subsp. elatius.</em> while at low concentration it shows hermetic effect and promoted the emergence and seedling growth. Among different Phenolic compound (Syringic acid, p-crumeic, Ferulic acid, Quercetion and Gallic acid) determine in aqueous extract of barck of <em>C. verum</em> Maximum Quercetion (12.3 %) and minimum Syringic acid (0.60 %) was found. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that aqueous extract of <em>C. verum </em>can be used as bioherbicide for biocontrol of weed at higher concentration (80 %) while at lower concentration (10%) as growth promoter.</p> Bilal Ahmad Khan Rizwan Ahmad Maqbool Sumbal Ahmad Parvez Muhammad Ather Nadeem Rizwan Maqbool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 19 28 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.976 COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (Lens culinaris L.) <p><em>Weeds are a major threat to global crop productivity and food security. Weeds compete with plants for applied inputs and resources and resultant cause a significant reduction in final productivity. A study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The study was comprised of two lentil varieties (Punjab Masoor-2009, Punjab Masoor-2020) and seven treatments i.e., </em><em>weedy check (control), manual weeding, Pendimethalin 33 EC @ 247 ml ha<sup>-1</sup>, S. metolachlor 960 EC @ 1976 ml ha<sup>-1</sup>, Pendimethalin +S. metolachlor @ 2223 ml ha<sup>-1</sup>, Flumetsulam 80 WG @ 18.525 g ha<sup>-1</sup> and Flumetsulam 80 WG @ 24.7 g ha<sup>-1 </sup>arranged in RCBD design having 3 replications</em><em>. According to the findings, different herbicides and cultivars had a substantial impact on growth and yield attributes of lentil. The maximum root fresh and dry weights (8.07, 1.57 g), shoot fresh and dry weights (20.08 and 5.28 g), plant height (62.05 cm), pods/plant (67.83), grains/pod (2), 1000 seed weight (25.17 g), grain yield (1934 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (3730 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in manual weeding and </em><em>lowest </em><em>root fresh and dry weights (6.28 and 1.57 g), shoot fresh and dry weights (12.33 and 3.99 g), plant height (44.58 cm), pods/plant (42.83), grains/pod (1.17), 1000 seed weight (14.40 g), grain yield (1113 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (2830 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in weedy check. In case of cultivars, Punjab Masoor-2020 had maximum root fresh and dry weights (7.90 and 1.81 g), shoot fresh and dry weights (17.17 and 5.02 g), plant height (54.99 cm), pods/plant (60.43), grains/pod (1.67), 1000 seed weight (21.09 g), grain yield (1690 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (3402 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) while cultivar Punjab Masoor-2009 had minimum root fresh weight (6.53 g), dry weight (1.68 g), shoot fresh weight (14.57), dry weight (4.62 g), plant height (53.09 cm), pods/plant (48.76), grains/pod (1.33), 1000 seed weight (18.44 g), grain yield (1586 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (3292 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Manual weeding also resulted in lowest weeds density and weeds biomass</em><em> and weedy check resulted in maximum weed density and weed biomass. </em><em>Thus, it is concluded that cultivar Punjab Masoor-2020 along with manual weeding and use of </em><em>Pendimethalin + S. metolachlor @ 2223 ml ha<sup>-1</sup> can be adopted to get maximum lentil production under warm semi-arid conditions of Faisalabad.</em></p> Bilal Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 29 44 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.994 Assessment of Allelopathic water stress of Parthenium on weed density and initial growth of maize hybrid (FS-151) using sigmoid growth model <p>Parthenium is an invasive weed and has adverse effect on agriculture, biodiversity and human health in our ecosystem. This experiment was carried out to find the allelopathic water stress of parthenium effect on maize growth dynamics using 3 sigmoidal growth model. Soil was collected from weed infested field. Allelopathic water stress (AWS) greatly reduced weed density as compared to control. Allelopathic water stress of parthenium at higher concentration (PWS-100%) reduced maize germination and affect chlorophyll content, leaf area, plant height, shoot biomass, root biomass. As at lower concentration (AWS-25% and 50%) enhance maize growth parameters. This study revealed that allelopathic water stress of parthenium at lower concentration increase maize growth and decrease a weed density up to minimum level.</p> Muhammad Haroon Atif Shaheen Atif Shaheen Fazli Wahid Mukhtar Alam Abdul Basir Rafi ullah Muhammad saeed Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 45 52 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.1004 Dr IMPACT OF VARIOUS ORGANIC AND CULTURAL PRACTICES ON YIELD AND WEED MANAGEMENT IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculanta L.) <p>Weed management in okra field is one of the most challenging and expensive steps that ultimately reducing the productivity. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate impact of various organic and cultural practices on yield and weed management in okra crop at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during spring season 2021 in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications. The following treatments were applied to the experimental trail. T1=Parthenium <em>Parthenium hysterophorus</em>) weed extraction (120g/L), T2= Coco grass (<em>Cyperus rotundus</em>) weed extraction (120g/L), T3= Field bind weed (<em>Convolvulus arvensis</em>) weed extraction (120g/L), T4= Mulching (Eucalyptus leaves), T5= Mulching (News Paper), T6= Hand weeding (Once) 20 days, T7= Hand weeding (Twice) 20 &amp;40 days, T8= Weedy check. Results shows that all the studied parameters of okra crop were significantly affected by all the applied treatments except number of flowers plant<sup>-1</sup>. Maximum weed fresh biomass (143.3g), weed dry biomass (42.2g), plant height (64.2cm), number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, (11), fruit length (11.73 cm), fruit diameter (1.8 cm) and yield (3246.6kg/ha) were noted in a Hand weeding (Twice) 20- &amp; 40-days treatment followed by Hand weeding (Once) after 20 days, however the minimum values was noted in weedy check treatment except weed density which was found maximum in weedy check treatment. Hand weeding twice after 20 &amp; 40 days of crop sowing was recommended to get in okra crop better yield.</p> IMTIAZ KHAN khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 53 61 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.1023 POTENTIAL OF Penicillium crustosum METABOLITES IN CONTROLLING PARTHENIUM WEED <p>Parthenium (<em>Parthenium hysterophorus </em>L.) ranks amongst the top ten most devastating weeds. It has spread on a large scale in various regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. In an attempt to search alternatives to chemical herbicides for control of this weed, metabolites of a fungal species <em>Penicillium crustosum </em>were evaluated for their herbicidal potential. The fungus was grown in two growth media viz. potato dextrose broth (PDB) and malt extract broth (MEB) for two weeks. After filtration, the culture filtrates from both the media were used in original (100%) as well as diluted (50%) forms. The experiment was carried out in 9-cm Petri plates, having 25 parthenium seeds in each plate. The effect of metabolites was assessed on germination and seedling growth. PDB metabolites proved more inhibitory against various studied parameters than the metabolites prepared in MEB. There was 62%, 88%, 91% and 93% suppression in germination, shoot length, root length and seedling dry biomass over control due to original metabolites prepared in PDB as compared to 33%, 74%, 94% and 81% reduction in these parameters, respectively, due to MEB metabolites.</p> Iqra Haider Khan Arshad Javaid Shahbaz Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 63 71 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.1025 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Senna occidentalis ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST Macrophomina phaseolina AND ITS GC-MS ANALYSIS <p>&nbsp;Hundreds of plant species, including many economically important crop plants, are attacked by a highly destructive soil-borne fungus <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em> (Tassi) Goid. In the present study, methanolic root extract of septicweed [<em>Senna occidentalis </em>(L.) Link] was evaluated against <em>M. phaseolina. </em>Different concentrations of the extract (0.5 to 3.0%) considerably decreased fungal biomass by 33–43%. Nine compounds were recognized when the extract was analyzed by GC-MS. The major compound was 11-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (26.49%) followed by (5β)pregnane-3,20β-diol, 14α d-mannose (13.85%);, 18α-[4-methyl-3-oxo-(1-oxa-4-azabutane-1,4-diyl)]-, diacetate (13.61%); ethyl iso-allocholate (11.37%); pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester (11.01%); and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,E)- (9.76%), which might be the cause of antifungal activity.</p> Arshad Javaid Haleema Qudsia Iqra Haider Khan Aneela Anwar Malik F. H. Ferdosi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 28 1 73 80 10.28941/pjwsr.v28i1.1033