PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP) en-US PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH 1815-1094 STUDY OF PRE AND EARLY POST EMERGENCE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS ON SELECTED WEEDS OF SEVERAL SORGHUM [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] AND PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum L.) CULTIVARS IN ZIMBABWE <p><em>Allelopathy has been identified as potentially a cost effective, natural weed control method which could be exploited by smallholders who have little access to herbicides. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of sorghum and pearl millet cultivars for their allelopathic effect against several weeds.</em><em> Water extracts of the stems root and leaves of twelve sorghum and pearl millet cultivars were screened for their ability to suppress germination and dry weight of blackjack (Bidens pilosa L.), upright starbur (Acanthospermum hispidium L.) and goose grass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn)]&nbsp; and by the addition of their plant material to soil under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used and the experiment was repeated twice over time. Results showed that there was a significant (P &lt; 0.01) effect of sorghum and pearl millet cultivars on germination / emergence and dry weight of goose grass and blackjack. It was established that sorghum and pearl millet cultivars has no significant (P &gt; 0.05) effect on germination of upright starbur and pearl millet landrace. However upright starbur dry weight was significant affected by sorghum and millets plant residues. From this study it can be concluded that all the sorghum and pearl millet cultivars reduced the germination and growth of goose grass and blackjack. Upright starbur was independent of the extracts applied. It can be concluded that incorporation of sorghum and millet residues can work as a tool in the integrated weed management for the rural farmers in Zimbabwe</em>.</p> Rugare Joyful Mukondwa Olivia Tatenda1 Mabasa Stanford Mandumbu Ronald ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 1 15 ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC THRESHOLD OF Convolvulus arvensis L. WEED IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) <p><em>Weed economic threshold in a specific crop serves as a tool for employing its cost-effective management. </em><em>Studies were carried out to find out competitive effect of field bindweed (</em><em>Convolvulus arvensis L.)</em><em> on wheat at research area of College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan during winter season 2014-15. Experimental </em><em>treatments included varying densities (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 plant m<sup>-2</sup>) of Convolvulus</em><em> arvensis</em><em>.</em><em> The weed densities were maintained by thinning the excess weed seedlings one week after crop emergence. </em><em>Wheat variety Galaxy was sown as a test crop. </em><em>Results exhibited that increasing densities of C. arvensis increased its dry weight m<sup>-2</sup> but reduced its plant height. A significant reduction in wheat growth and yield was recorded by increasing C. arvensis density. Wheat plant height, number of productive tillers, spike length and grain yield showed a significant decline at and beyond C. arvensis density of 8 plants per m<sup>2</sup>. Whereas number of grain spike<sup>-1</sup> and 1000-grain weight of wheat were prone to substantial reduction at and above 4 and 12 C. arvensis&nbsp; plants m<sup>-2</sup>, respectively. Losses of grain yield of wheat ranged between </em><em>10 to 28% </em><em>under the influence of C. arvensis density between 8 to 20 plants per m<sup>2</sup>. Economic threshold of C. arvensis as estimated by prediction model was 5.6 plants per m<sup>2</sup> indicating that field bindweed weed in wheat should be controlled at this density.</em></p> Muhammad Ehsan Safdar Muhammad Sikander Hayyat Muhammad Zeshan Maajid Mubashar Nadeem Amjed Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 17 26 EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN SOURCES AS COMPOSTING STARTER AND DECOMPOSITION OF PARTHENIUM WEED INTO A QUALITY COMPOST <p><em>Nitrogen starter is an essential component of successful composting. Parthenium weed, being high nutrient accumulator from agricultural soils, was composted under different sources of nitrogen viz chiken manure, blood meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, urea, and a control to evaluate their relative effectiveness for composting starter and decomposition into a a quality mature compost. Composts treatments were evaluated after each month for physico-chemical properties and the results indicated the highest pH (8.33) and mineral N (10.68 g kg<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest bulk density (1.03 g cm<sup>-3</sup>) for soybean meal whilst the maximum total N (27.68 g kg<sup>-1</sup>) and P (3.04 g kg<sup>-1</sup>) for cotton seed meal treated composts. Chicken manure treated compost indicated the highest electrical conductivity (EC; 2.14 dS m<sup>-1</sup>) and total K (201.3 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). Micro-nutrients Fe (639.15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Mn (558.7 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were maximum in the compost treated with Urea as N starter. Water holding capacity (47.9 %) was maximum in the compost treated with blood meal. The experiment concluded that use of N from organic sources and urea were equally effective as N starter in composting with the maximum favorable effect on compost quality, however, Soybean meal and Cotton seed meal were distinct with respect to improved physico-chemical properties of the mature compost. </em><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wiqar Ahmad Sadiq Hussain Muhammad Sharif Farmanullah Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 27 36 UTILITARIAN ASPECTS OF WEEDS OF WHEAT FIELDS IN CHARBAGH VALLEY DISTRICT SWAT PAKISTAN <p><em>Weed survey was conducted from February to May 2016, in fields of wheat crop of Charbagh Valley, district Swat. Information on 18 families and 34 species was collected with regard to their ecological characteristics, medicinal and other economic uses by local inhabitants. The dominant families were Fabaceae and Poaceae represented by 5 species each, followed by Asteraceae with 4 species. Biological spectra expressed that therophytes were the major life form class with 31 species (91.176%) and geophytes had 3 species (8.8235%). Leaf size classification showed nanophyll with 11 species (32.35%) were the major size class followed by microphyll 10 species (29.41%), mesophylls with 6 species (17.64%), leptophyll with 5 species (14.70%) while macrophyll and megaphyll&nbsp; with single species each (2.941%). Weeds were used as vegetables, medicinal and for grazing animals as fodder. The present study was aimed to screen out the ecological aspects of weed flora in wheat crops of Charbagh. The recent work is the first report on the weed ecology of Charbagh Valley.&nbsp; This may help for future intensive and extensive researches on weed diversity in the area.</em></p> Muhammad Nauman Khan Fazal Hadi Maryam Bibi Naushad Khan Syed Mukaram Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 37 46 IMPACT OF COVER CROPS IN IMPROVING AGRO-ECOSYTEMS INCLUDING SUSTAINABLE WEED SUPPRESSION – A REVIEW <p><em>Weeds are always considered as one of the serious pests that compete </em><em>for their growth and development and decline the production in of major crops. Weeds&nbsp; occur in abundance in every cropping system i.e. wheat-rice, wheat- maize&nbsp; and wheat- cotton&nbsp; cropping systems. Herbicides are used in order to minimizet weed infestation, but the use of herbicides or inorganic chemicals against weeds is also developing resistance in weeds to herbicides. Despite that herbicides are also affecting the environment especially human health. Pesticides not only damage the human health but also pollute the air, soil, water and becoming part of food chain. One of the options to minimize weed infestation is intercropping of cover crops between cash crops to reduce the weed suppression. Cover crops are the plants grown inn field in such a way that these plants give soil cover despite it may be incorporated in field or not and also facilities weed suppression, control soil erosion, improve soil fertility&nbsp; and also manage diseases and pests present in that field. Cover crops normally comprise of legumes and grasses. Cover crops lead to be one of the better options that reduce the dose of herbicides and these are harmonious with the objectives of conservation agriculture. Regardless of much importance of cover crops and their worth in agricultural systems, cover crops have certain negative aspects as well. They compete with cash crops for moisture, solar radiation and nutrients which ultimately decrease the return of cash crops. Farmers are still hesitating to grow cover crops in their farming systems due to lack of knowledge about these crops. According to Daily Times, in Pakistan soil erosion is 20% and organic matter is less than 1%. So, cultivation of cover crops helps to minimize the adverse effect of erosion and enhances the organic matter content in soil.&nbsp; Cover crops may decline the yields but cover crops are one of the steps that leads to a sustainable or conservation agriculture.</em></p> Fasih Ullah Haider Sardar Alam Cheema Muhammad Farooq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 47 62 INTERACTIONS OF Capsicum annuum L IN MONOCULTURE AND IN INTERCROPPING WITH Setaria verticillata (L.) P. BEAUVOIS. <p><em>Mixture is a system of two or more different plant species interacting with each other in different manners. Interspecific competition, resource complementarity and facilitation may modulate better performance of a mixture. It is difficult to interpret the results of a simple mixture experiment, if the phenomena act together. An experimental design is used to study interactions between chilies or peppers, Capsicum annuum L. var</em>. <em>‘Baklouti’ </em><em>and Setaria verticillata </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>(L.) P. BEAUVOIS</em><em>.</em> <em>A replacement series design was used to compare </em><em>C. annuum/ </em><em>S.verticillata</em><em> interactions under monocultures vs. polycultures. The experiment is conducted in the greenhouse of the Higher Institute&nbsp;of Agricultural Sciences, of&nbsp;Chott-Mariem, 4041, </em>University of Sousse, Institution of Agricultural Research and Higher Education (IRESA), Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Tunisia durin<em>g 2011-2012 crop season. In this replacement experiment, C. annuum and </em><em>S. verticillata</em><em> seedlings were transplanted into pots with different proportions of both species (0/6, 1/5, 2/4, 3/3, 4/2, 5/1, 6/0). Dry weights of two species were measured at the harvest time at 40 days age from transplantation. The relative interaction index, relative competition intensity and actual dry weight loss was calculated for both species. These intercropping evaluation indices showed that C. annuum is a weak competitor and S. verticillata is a strong competitor. The dry weight advantage was caused by the rapid growth of S. verticillata. C. annuum cannot grow with S. verticillata due to very competitive nature of this weed. The suppression of the later weed is unavoidable for growth of C. annum. Further studies are suggested confirm the present findings.</em></p> Abdessatar Omezine ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 25 1 65 78