PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.wssp.org.pk/">www.wssp.org.pk/</a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP) en-US PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) 1815-1094 SOIL WEED SEED BANK STATUS IN THE AGROECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF CHITRAL, PAKISTAN https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/981 <p>A greenhouse experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Shen Lasht, Chitral during 2016-17. There were five different locations in district Chitral from where the soil samples were collected which included Drosh, Shen Lasht, Garam Chashma, Ayun and BoonyLasht. A total of 300 samples were collected from all locations with 60 samples from each location. The 300 soil samples collected were placed in trays of medium sizes i.e. 27 cm x 21 cm x 4 cm = 2268 cm<sup>3</sup>. The trays were arranged in three repetitions having 100 samples in each repetition. Each repetition of 100 samples contained samples from 5 locations, in each location 4 sites (east, west, north and south each at 100 m distance from each other) and at each site samples were collected from 5 different depths, making a total of 100 samples in one repetition i.e. 5 x 4 x 5 = 100 and with repetitions making a total of 300 samples in one district. The results indicated that in the soil samples of district Chitral a total of 31 noxious weeds were recorded. Out of the 31 different weeds, 23 were broad leaves, eight were grasses and one was sedge. In another angle, 24 weeds were annuals while the rest were perennials out of the 31 weeds identified. A total of 17 different plant families were represented by the weeds recorded in the soil samples of Chitral region. Among the different locations of Chitral, the highest weed seed bank was recorded in the soil samples of ARS Shen Lasht area. Weed seed banks have always been higher in areas with mild winters, where the Shen lasht area is having milder winters as compared to the other areas in Chitral. The lowest seed bank was recorded in the soil samples of Garam Chashma, which was however statistically at par with the rest of the locations studied in Chitral.&nbsp; As far as the seed banks in the depths are concerned, largest weed seed bank was observed in the depth of 6 to 12 cm. The smallest seed bank was at the depth of 30 cm followed by the depth of 24 and 18 cm. Therefore, it is evident that the major weed seed bank lies in the upper 6-12 cm depth of the soil. In case of the interaction, the largest weed seed bank was recorded at ARS Sheen lasht at the depth of upper 6 cm of the soil profile whereas the weed seed bank was very low below the 12cm depth of soil upto 30 cm in the Garam Chashma area of Chitral. Out of the total 31 weeds recorded in soil samples of Chitral, the top 10 weeds in terms of the relative weed densities, relative weed frequencies and importance value indices were <em>Convolvulus arvensis</em>, <em>Rumex crispus</em>, <em>Poa annua</em>, <em>Galium aparine</em>, <em>Avenafatua, Trianthemaportulacastrum</em>, <em>Silybum marianum</em>, <em>Sorghumhalepense</em>, <em>Euphorbia helioscopia</em>, and <em>Loliumtenulentum</em>species. The IVI values for these weeds were 14.01, 13.96, 13.07, 11.83, 11.57, 11.12, 10.35, 10.09, 10.02, and 9.99, respectively. Moreover, these IVIs indicate that out of the topmost 10 problematic weeds eight weeds are broad leaved and two are grassy weeds.</p> Luqman Luqman zahid hussain Haroon Khan Miftah Ud-Din Ata Ullah Faraz Ali Shah Imtiaz Khan Abdul Majid Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 253 262 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.981 Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cynara scolymus, Lavandula angustifolia, Alkanna Tinctoria and its antimicrobial activities—A comparative study https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/933 <p><em>Nanotechnology is a promising field of science and involves use of nanoparticle with size ranging between 1 nm–100 nm. The phenomenal size properties enable nanoparticles to anchor a prominent place in various biomedical applications. Silver is known for its antimicrobial nature. This study elucidates the qualitative phytochemical properties of three plant extracts, its biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity. &nbsp;Green Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from 1mM Silver Nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) solution using leaf extracts of Cynara scolymus (Artichoke), Alkanna tinctoria (Alkanet), and Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender) respectively. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized visually, via UV–vis spectrophotometer and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The biogenic particles were tested against pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and Plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger). The formation of AgNPs with size &lt;100 nm was ensured by UV vis spectrophotometer and XRD. Antibacterial activity of lavender mediated AgNP was highly significant, followed by artichoke mediated AgNP and finally, alkanet AgNP were effective. However, in contrast, Artichoke mediated AgNP showed significant activity against plant fungal strains, followed by Alkanet AgNP, and finally by Lavender mediated AgNPs. We concluded that the three plants have versatile biochemical molecules responsible for broad spectrum of AgNP against bacterial and fungal strains. Studies on combined use of AgNPs with other antimicrobial agents may solve the problem of toxicity and possible risk of drug resistance.</em></p> Syeda Hafsa Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 277 295 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.933 FLORISITIC COMPOSITION AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORA OF TEHSIL SARI NAURANG, DISTRICT LAKKI MARWAT PAKISTAN https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/906 <p>The present study was carried out &nbsp;to determine the floristic composition and ecological characterization of the flora of tehsil Sarai&nbsp; Naurang. The floristic diversity of the plant consists of 143 species belonging to 47 different families having 42 dicots and 05 monocots. Poaceae were comprised as the dominant families containing 18 species followed by Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Solanaceae. Therophytes were dominant class having 89 species (62.23%) followed by Microphanerophytes 19 species (13.28%), Hemicryptophytes 13 species (9.09%),Chamaephytes 8 species&nbsp; (5.59%), Geophytes 7 species (4.89%), Nanophanerophytes 6 species (4.19%) and Megaphanerophytes have 1 species (0.69%). Leaf size of most plant species was reduced indicating an adaptation to arid climatic conditions. The leaf size showed that Nanophylls size were the dominant followed by Microphyll <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">(</span>40 species (27.97%), Leptophyll <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">(</span>34 species (23.77%), mesophyll <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">(</span>15 species&nbsp; (10.48%), megaphyll <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">(</span>2 species( 1.39%) and macrophyll 1 species&nbsp; (0.69%).</p> Shabir Ahmad FAWAD KHAN ZAHIR MUHAMMAD KHUSHDIL KHAN MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN ASIF KAMAL ASIF KAMAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 263 275 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.906 Allelopathy Weed management and yield improvement in mungbean through allelopathic action of sunflower and bermuda grass (a weed) extract in conjunction with irrigation frequencies https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/980 <p>Allelopathy is the effect of one plant species by reducing the germination and growth of the neighbouring plants of another species through releasing chemical compounds. It has been reported by many researchers that weeds are major hazard in reducing crop yield but it can be managed effectively through phytotoxic properties of plants. A field study was conducted at Students Experimental Farm, Agronomy Department, Crop Production Faculty, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan during spring 2019 and repeated during 2020 to validate the previous results. The research conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of sunflower and Bermuda grass extracts under various irrigation levels on weeds density and yield of mungbean cultivar ‘AEM-96’. Split plot design having four replications was managed. The experiment consisted of weed control practices: Weedy check, various levels of sunflower and bermuda grass extracts as sole and in combination with each other, different levels of herbicides as alone and in integration with allelopathic plant extracts as well as hand weeding under three irrigation frequencies (2, 3 and 4 watering applications). The analysis variance of results showed that various levels of sunflower and bermuda grass extracts as sole and in combination with each other, different levels of herbicides as alone and in integration with allelopathic plant extracts as well as hand weeding caused significant suppression of weeds and increased in seed yield as compared to weedy check. The combined treatment Atlantis: 0.1 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> + Puma Super: 0.156 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> + Sunflower extract: 15 L ha<sup>-1</sup> resulted in less weed density (51.6 m<sup>-2</sup>) and produced maximum seed yield of 2404.4 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. Bermuda grass extract: 15 Ltr ha<sup>-1 </sup>integration with low dose of herbicides Atlantis: 0.1 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Puma Super: 0.156 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> &nbsp;showed weed density of 61.3 m<sup>-2 </sup>&nbsp;resulted seed yield of 2282.1 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. The application of &nbsp;herbicides treatment Atlantis: 0.2 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> + Puma Super: 0.312 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> suppressed weed density of 70.9 m<sup>-2 </sup>and produced seed yield of 2162.5 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. It is noted that Hand weeding: 30 days after sowing showed weed density of 76.1 m<sup>-2 </sup>and seed yield 2042.5 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. The combined allelopathic plant applications of Sunflower +Bermuda grass extract each: 15 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> reduced weed density 80.7 m<sup>-2</sup> and obtained seed yield of 1923.2 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. Sole application of sunflower extract: 30 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> resulted weed density 91.0 m<sup>-2 </sup>and recorded seed yield of 1804.2 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. Alone allelopathy application of Bermuda grass extract: 30 Ltr ha<sup>-1 </sup>noticed weed density 103.3 m<sup>-2 </sup>and produced seed yield of 1684.8 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. The highest weed density 140.9 m<sup>-2</sup> and lowest seed yield 1343.1 kgs ha<sup>-1 </sup>noticed in weedy check treatment where no any application applied for weed reduction. According to irrigation frequencies the 4 watering applications resulted less weed density 82.2 m<sup>-2</sup> and obtained maximum seed yield 1996.3 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by 3 watering applications noted weed density 84.5 m<sup>-2</sup> and achieved seed yield 1955.5 kgs ha<sup>-1</sup>. The maximum weed density 86.7 m<sup>-2</sup> and lowest seed yield recorded in 2 watering application. The analysis of variance of pooled data revealed that Atlantis: 0.1 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> + Puma Super: 0.156 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> + Sunflower extract: 15 Ltr ha<sup>-1</sup> integrated treatment under 4 watering applications (15, 30, 45 and 60 DAS) caused significant impact on weed inhabitation and yield enrichment</p> Muhammad Naeem Korejo Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro Aijaz Ahmed Soomro Niaz Ahmed Wahocho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 307 320 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.980 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIVERSITY AND HOMOGENEITY OF WEED COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT CROP IN TEHSIL RAZAR DISTRICT SWABI, PAKISTAN https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/943 <p>The present study explains comparative evaluation of diversity and degree of homogeneity of weed communities of wheat crop using different indices. This study was conducted in tehsil Razar District Swabi Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during February-April 2016. A total of 200 quadrats having size (1x1 m<sup>2</sup>) were placed in 20 randomly selected wheat fields in the study area. Analytical quantitative characters like density, frequency and cover were calculated for each weed species. Twenty weed communities were established in 20 selected sites. Comparative evaluation of diversity revealed that Menhinick index ranged from 0.61 to 1.72, Margalef richness ranged from 2.82 to 6.3, Simpson diversity index ranged from 0.78 to 0.94, Shannon-Wiener diversity index varied from 2.13 to 3.24, Pielou evenness index varied from 0.67 to 0.97 while Pichi-Sermolli maturity index ranged from 39.6 to 67.7. Based on Raunkiaer’s law of frequency, out of 20 weed communities, 13 communities were found heterogeneous while 7 were homogeneous. Maximum number of weed species were distributed in frequency class A, B and E. &nbsp;</p> Maqsood Anwar Shah Khalid Naveed Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 297 305 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.943 A, The EXPLORING THE ALLELOPATHIC AND HERMETIC EFFECT OF KHATAMI (Altheae officinalis) ON EMERGENCE AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF RADISH (Raphanus sativus) https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/965 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Crop plants release biochemicals into surrounding environment that help in obtaining maximum yield of crop by acting bioherbicide at high concentration and plant growth hormone at low concentration. Therefore, this study was planned at Department of Agronomy in Weed Science Laboratory, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during Winter 2018 to evaluate the hermetic effects of <em>Althaea officinalis</em> L. (khatami) on vegetable crop Radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em>) The experiments were laid out under completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications. The aqueous extracts of <em>A. officinalis</em> L. were used on radish different concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 80%). Data regarding seed germination and seedling growth (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root dry weigh) of radish were recorded using standard procedures. Results Reveals that the aqueous extract of <em>A. officinalis</em> at higher concentration (80%) act as bioherbicide and produced inhibitory effects on <em>R. sativus</em> result in Maximum time to 50% germination (4.68 days) and mean germination time (9.05 days) while minimum germination index (3.60), germination percentage (85.00%), shoot length (42.4 cm), root length (25.90 cm), shoot fresh weight (53.30 g) and root fresh weight (13.30 g). While at lower concentration (10%) it shows hermetic effect and produce maximum germination percentage (100.00%), shoot length (58.2 cm), root length (52.0 cm), shoot fresh weight (90.00g), root fresh weight (26.30 g) minimum time to complete 50% germination (3.36 days), germination index (6.00%) and mean germination time (5.73 days) growth. In <em>A. officinalis </em>among different phenolic compound minimum Syringic acid (0.60%) and maximum Quercetion (12.3%) compound was found. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that aqueous extract of <em>officinalis </em>can be used as growth promoter at lower concentration while at higher concentration for environmentally friendly control of weeds.</p> Bilal Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 321 330 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.965 BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF Calotropis procera FLOWERS https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/982 <p><em>Calotropis procera</em> is a medicinal weed of family Asclepiadaceae. This study was carried out to explore the biochemical profile of <em>C. procera </em>flowers collected from Southern Punjab region of Pakistan. Methanolic flower extract of <em>C. procera </em>was subjected to GC-MS analysis. There were 30 compounds identified in this extract. The predominant compound was γ-sitosterol with 15.39% peak area. Other abundantly occurring compounds included stigmasterol (9.22%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (9.01%), campesterol (8.63%), α-amyrin acetate (8.25%), β-amyrin (8.09%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (7.91%), 11-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (6.15%), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (5.66%). Moderately abundant compounds included nonacos-1-ene (2.83%), methyl stearate (1.57%), pentacosane (1.44%)<strong>, </strong>phytol (1.33%), heptacos-1-ene (1.20%), heneicosane (1.19%), and 1-hexacosene (1.09%). The remaining less abundant compounds were present with peak areas less than 1%. Literature survey showed that the major compounds identified in the flower extract of <em>C. procera </em>possess various bioactivities including antidiabetic, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflamatory.</p> Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi Iqra Haider Khan Arshad Javaid Ayesha Munir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 341 349 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.982 a the Low Doses of Atrazine Cause Hormesis in Tribulus terrestris https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/983 <p><em>Growth stimulation anticipated to ultra-low doses of various herbicides in some crop species has been observed equally in under control and field conditions; however available data of hermetic affects on growth of weeds is extremely restricted. This study explores the promotive impact of low doses of atrazine on Tribulus terrestris growth. Pot experiments were trialed at Agronomic Research Area, collage of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, during 2019. Six different concentrations of atrazine [0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 g active ingredient &nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup>] were employed as post emergence herbicides at weeds stages having 3- 4 leaves under two different water regimes (60 % and 100 % water concentrations). Results revealed that increase in plant chlorophyll content, fresh and dry weight, root and shoot length were observed after spraying of atrazine @ 5, 10 and 20 g active ingredient ha<sup>-1</sup> at 100 percent (%) water concentration. Atrazine doses exceeding 20 g active ingredient ha<sup>-1</sup> destructively disturb the growth of Tribulus terrestris.</em></p> Bilal Ahmad Khan Mamoona Arooj Mamoona Arooj Muhammad Ather Nadeem1 Muhammad Mansoor Javaid Rizwan Maqbool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 351 358 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.983 ANTIMICROBIAL AND OTHER BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF Cannabis sativus ROOTS FROM PAKISTAN https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/984 <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.), a medicinal plant of family Cannabaceae, growing wildly in most of the rainfed areas of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, phytochemical profile of methanolic extract of root was assessed through GC-MS analysis and various biologically active compounds were identified through literature survey. There were 14 compounds in the root extract. The most abundant compounds were γ-sitosterol (27.08%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (24.09%) and hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (21.81%). Other identified compounds were methyl stearate (5.51%), stigmasterol (5.12%), campesterol (4.19%), phenol, 2,2'-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-(2.52%), 11-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (2.10%), squalene (1.89%), β-amyrin (1.88%), eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (0.85%), tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester (0.88%), dronabinol (1.02%) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.96%). Most of the identified compounds possess one or more biological activities <em>viz.</em> antitumor, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and/or analgesic.</p> Arshad Javaid Iqra Haider Khan Malik F.H. Ferdosi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 359 368 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.984 A, The Identifying the hermetic potential of khatami (Altheae officinalis) emergence and seedling growth of wild Pea (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius). https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/973 <p>Crop plants release biochemicals into surrounding environment that help in obtaining maximum yield of crop by acting bioherbicide at high concentration and plant growth hormone at low concentration. Therefore, this study was planned at Department of Agronomy in Weed Science Laboratory, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during Winter 2018 to evaluate the allelopathic effects of <em>A. officinalis</em> on weed Wild Pea (<em>Pisum sativum subsp. elatius</em>). The experiments were laid out under completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications. The aqueous extracts of <em>C. verum</em>. were used on radish and wild pea seeds at different concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 80%). Data regarding seed germination and seedling growth (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root dry weigh) of weed were recorded following standard procedures. Results Reveals that the aqueous extract of <em>A. officinalis</em> at higher concentration (80%) act as bioherbicide and produced inhibitory effects on <em>R. sativus</em> result in Maximum time to 50% germination (6.70 days) and mean germination time (10.00 days) while minimum germination index (4.70), germination percentage (66.60%), shoot length (49.8 cm), root length (8.16 cm), shoot fresh weight (10.00g) and root fresh weight (10.361g). While at lower concentration (10%) it shows hermetic effect and produce maximum germination percentage (90.00%), shoot length (84.7 cm), root length (66.2 cm), shoot fresh weight (82.20 g), root fresh weight (58.30 g) and germination index (8.21%) minimum time to complete 50% germination (4.33 days) and mean germination time (5.49 days) growth. In <em>A. officinalis </em>among different phenolic compound minimum Syringic acid (0.60%) and maximum Quercetion (12.3%) compound was found. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that aqueous extract of <em>officinalis </em>can be used as growth promoter at lower concentration while at higher concentration for environmentally friendly control of weeds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bilal Ahmad Khan Rizwan Maqbool Sumbal Parvez Sumbal Parvez Muhammad Ather Nadeem Burhan Khalid Muhammad Mohsin Amin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 331 340 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.973 Influence of tillage systems and herbicides on weed control and yield of cotton in wheat-cotton system https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/841 <p>Wheat–cotton system is a major production system in Pakistan, however, cotton yield is declining in the system most likely due to weeds infestation and intensive tillage practices. Conservation tillage such as reduced and zero tillage in combination with appropriate herbicide may have the potential to enhance cotton yield on sustainable basis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of herbicides under different tillage systems on weed control and cotton yield in wheat-cotton system. A field experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Ratta Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during 2017 and 2018. In the experiment, post-emergence herbicides, i.e. floxyfop-R-methyl 10.8 EC (108 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup>), lactofen 24 EC (168 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup>), floxyfop 10.8 EC + lactofen 24 EC, hand weeding, weedy check and three tillage systems (zero tillage, reduced tillage and conventional tillage) were evaluated in randomized compete block design (RCBD), with split plot arrangements, replicated 4 times. Tillage was allotted to main plots while herbicides were applied to subplots. The results revealed that hand weeding and floxyfop as post emergence alone or in combination with lactofen reduced weed density to the minimum irrespective of the tillage systems. Maximum dry weed biomass was recorded in control. Interaction effects revealed that reduced tillage in combination with broad spectrum herbicides had maximum weed population reduction percentage. Reduced tillage with broad spectrum herbicides had seed cotton yield compared to zero and conventional tillage. In conclusion, broad-spectrum herbicides under reduced tillage were more productive in wheat based cropping system on silty clay soil of D.I.Khan.</p> Niamat Ullah Khan Aftab Ahmad Khan Sami Ullah Imran Ullah Shitab Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 397 406 10.28941/pjwsr.v26i2.841 contribution of Agriotes pakistanicus from pakistan https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/990 <p>B i u</p> Shabana Zoologist Mangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 369 380 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.990 INSECTICIDAL EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INDIGENOUS PLANTS IN COMPARISON WITH SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDE FOR THE MANAGMENENT OF THRIPS Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysnaoptera; Thripidae) IN TOMATO CROP https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/974 <p>Insecticidal evaluation of aqueous extracts of indigenous plant extracts in comparison with synthetic insecticide against Thrips (<em>Scirotothrips dorsalis)</em> on tomato was conducted under natural field condition during spring 2019. Experiment consists of 8 treatments (neem extract, tobacco extract, garlic extract, datura extract, lantana extract, eucalyptus extract, flonicamid (synthetic insecticide) and control following RCB Design with 3 replications. Treatments were applied thrice after 15 days interval. &nbsp;Results revealed that &nbsp;the three times application of the tested treatments showed varying toxicity against <em>S. dorsalis</em> 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days after spray applications while ladybird beetle and green lacewing were also significantly affected when recorded 7 days after spray application. However, Flonicamid 50%WG proved to be the most effective till 7<sup>th</sup> and had lowest pest population followed datura and neem extract. neem extract in all the three spray application . Garlic and eucalyptus also produced significant results compared to control. Neem, tobacco, datura and flonicamid were found to be comparatively more hazardous to ladybird beetle and green lacewing population &nbsp;compared to eucalyptus, garlic and lantana to in all three spray application. &nbsp;Tomato yield was highest with flonicamid (12533 kg/ha) followed by datura and neem (11810 kg/ha and 11300 kg/ha) respectively, while lowest (8133 kg/ha) in control. It is concluded from the current research that flonicamid performed better against <em>S. dorsalis</em> &nbsp;but comparatively more hazardous &nbsp;to natural enemies however lantana, garlic and eucalyptus extract&nbsp; showed better result against <em>S. dorsalis</em> &nbsp;and comparatively safe towards natural enemies thus recommended to be incorporated in IPM program.</p> Amjad Usman Hina Gul karishma Karishma Seema zubair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 431 441 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.974 EFFECT OF SOWING METHODS AND PICKING INTERVALS ON THE FRESH YIELD AND SEED PRODUCTION OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/885 <p><em>To study the effect of various planting beds and picking time on yield of okra, a research study was conducted at Horticulture Research Farm, Malakander, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Okra seeds of cultivar Swat Green were planted into two different types of sowing methods (ridges and flat beds), and reduced to various number of picking (3, 4, and 5 intervals). The results of the present study revealed that okra plants sown on the ridges recorded maximum germination percentage (96.9%), fruit weight (</em><em>22.41g</em><em>), pod length (14.44 cm), seed pod<sup>-1</sup> (48), 100 seed weight (6.41 g), seed yield (102.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and fresh yield (0.165 tons ha<sup>-1</sup>). Data regarding number of picking intervals showed that maximum germination percentage (92.7%), fruit weight (</em><em>20.97 g</em><em>), pod length (12.25 cm), highest seed yield (103.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and seed pod<sup>-1</sup> (43) were recorded in 3 pickings. Whereas, data for maximum 100 seed weight (6.6 g) for picking intervals was recorded in 4 pickings and maximum fresh yield (0.148 tons ha<sup>-1</sup>) in 5 pickings. Infestation of weeds can cause a significant loss in okra yield which needs urgent integrated management. Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa crusgalli </em>and <em>Digitaria sanguinalis</em><em> were the main weeds observed during the study against which local farmers used various manual, mechanical and chemical control methods. It is concluded that okra plant sown on ridges and almost 3 picking intervals have significantly affected the growth and seed yield. Excessive use of chemical herbicides should be avoided to prevent environmental and human health hazards.</em></p> Sana Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 407 418 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.885 A SURVEY STUDY OF NURSERY MANAGEMENT AND SURVEILLANCE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT SPECIES AT PESHAWAR CITY, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA-PAKISTAN https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/917 <p><em>The current survey study was carried out at Peshawar Development Authority Nursery Hayatabad Peshawar-Pakistan during the year 2019-20. This survey was based on recording the current situation and various methods practiced by the garden staff to look after their nursery. The main objective was to improve the current situation of the nursery and suggest recommendations in light of the highlighted problems. The different parameters studied were identification of plants, total area of nursery, soil type, irrigation system, weeding, fertilizer application, propagation method, propagation time, transplanting time, field situation and finally problem of the nursery. All the agricultural and horticultural practices were not fully applied and practiced in proper recommended way. Out of the total studied parameters, irrigation system that was sprinkler irrigation, was impressive and appreciable. Proper fertilizer at proper time played a vital role in plant growth and nursery development. The gardeners and other technical and field staff did not conduct their jobs to their fullest and their nursery management was unsatisfactory. It was concurred that good quality plants production was not achieved and disease identification was missing due to lack of germ plasm unit facility. Weeds were badly impacting nursery plants and affected their beauty and yield. Various weedicides were used by the nursery staff to reduce the negative influence of weed infestation. It was recommended that effective planning, punctual staff duty and modern practices should be applied to improve the overall structure of the nursery.</em></p> Sana Ullah Abdul Basit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 419 430 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.917 CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS ATTACKING TOMATO CROPS IN DISTRICT BAJAUR, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA https://wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/998 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Tomato plant (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em>) is a widely cultivated vegetable crop. The plant is economically very important. To ensure a successful and economically viable harvest, it is essential that all aspects of its production to be monitored. At present, there is a limited scientific data regarding the use of pesticides in relation to the seasonal incidence of insect pests in the Bajaur district of Pakistan. This study was carried out at a local farm, where the efficacies of Flurofenafire pesticide were examined. The pesticide Flurofenafire was applied once a week to examine its efficacy. The stability of the pesticide was highly dependent on the weather. The occurrence of rain within 24 hours of spraying resulted in Aphid, Jassid, White fly, Thrips and Fruit borer infestations. Aphid infestations were observed on the tomato crop in May 2019, which peaked in July. Bemisia Tabaci infestations peaked in August. Amrasca Biguttula populations peaked in September 2019. Scirtothrips dorsalis and Helicoverpaarmigera infestations were also observed on the tomato crops and caused significant damage. The application of Flurofenafire was able to control these infestations. In conclusion the pesticide Flurofenafire was found effective against a wide range of insect pest of tomato plant.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key Words: Flurofenafire, Pest, Pesticide, Seasonal incidence, <em>Lycopersicon esculentum </em></strong></p> Ali Hazrat Muhammad Yahya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 27 3 381 395 10.28941/pjwsr.v27i3.998