EFFECT OF SOWING PATTERN AND HERBICIDES APPLICATION ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT CROP
A field experiment was conducted at the new developmental farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during rabi season 2016-17. A wheat variety Ata Habib was selected to be investigated to check its performance by adopting methods of sowing and mixed tank herbicides application. The experiment was arranged in split plot with randomized complete block (RCB) design and 4 replications to reduce the error of the results. For practical adaptation of the experiment, the sowing methods were presented as the main plots, while tank mixed herbicides were kept in the sub-plots to get good prominent results for possible positive differences among the treatments. The sub-plot size measured as 1.5 X 3 m while row to row distance was kept 30 cm. Data were recorded on weed density m-2, fresh and dry weed biomass (kg) , plant height (cm), spike length (cm), leaf area (cm) , number of tillers (m-2) , Number of grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight (g), biological yield (kg ha-1), and grain yield (kg ha-1), Harvest index (%). These data parameters were formally observed with great care to avoid any repetition or error of the data. Few noxious weeds were observed and recorded in the field viz. Avena fatua, Anagallis arvensis, Euphorbia helioscopia, Phalaris minor, Poa annua, Medicago denticulata, Convolvulus arvensis, Coronopus didymus, Fumaria polymorpha, Melilotus parviflora, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus. The obtained results indicated that sowing methods were statistically significant for plant height, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight and biological yield that showed a clear effectiveness of the recorded data parameters. In addition to this, herbicides applications were also were also statistically significant for all the parameters except grains spike-1, while the interaction of sowing methods and herbicides application were also non-significant. In sowing methods, line sowing provided satisfactory results. As general understandings various weeds were managed significantly through tank mixed herbicide applications with a ratio of 60-72% for broad leaf and grassy weeds respectively. Consequently the instant results provided 54% increased yield compared to the untreated treatments. Hence it is concluded that , line sowing in combination with tank mixed herbicides are more suitable for management of weeds in the wheat field and increased yield in the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar-Pakistan.