|Title||TOXICITY OF BOTANICAL AND FUNGAL EXTRACTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE Tribolium castaneum HERBST. (COLEOPTERA:TENEBRIONIDAE)|
|Authors||Shahid Sattar, Bisma Mumtaz, Bashir Ahmad and Zafar Iqbal|
Toxicological tests were carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of some fungal (Aspergillus spp and Rhizopus spp) and plant based (Melia azedarach and Polygonum hydropiper) extracts against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) under laboratory conditions; 65 ± 5% (Relative Humidity), 25 ± 2 0C (Temperature) and 8hL: 16hD (Photoperiod). Oral toxicity data showed that the synthetic insecticide (chlorpyrifos) was by far, more toxic as compared to the extracts as it killed almost all the test insects within 24 hrs post exposure. However, the extracts, i.e. Aspergillus spp, Rhizopus spp, M. azedarach and P. hydropiper with mean mortality of 4.0, 3.0, 2.7 and 1.5, respectively proved significantly more toxic as compared to control having mean mortality of 0.02. The extracts also caused significant negative impact on the feeding potential of the test insects with 0.23g, 0.32g, 0.31g and 0.24g for Aspergillus spp, Rhizopus spp, M. azedarach and P. hydropiper, respectively as compared to 0.44g, recorded in control. The contact toxicity test resulted in almost identical outcomes in terms of mortality and diet consumption as observed in oral tests. However, owing to relatively slower uptake of the chemicals in case of contact poisoning, the lethal impact was exerted in longer period of time, hence resulting in comparatively more diet consumption. The free choice test showed that botanical extracts (M. azedarach and P. hydropiper) with 0.07g and 0.08g diet consumption, respectively caused significantly more phagodeterrance as compared to Aspergillus spp (0.13g), Rhizopus spp (0.11g), and control (0.17g).