|Title||EFFECTIVENESS OF OUTREACH ORGANIZATIONS IN BUILDING CAPACITY OF SMALLHOLDER RICE GROWERS REGARDING WEED MANAGEMENT|
|Authors||Umair Talib, Ijaz Ashraf , Robert Agunga and Saleem Ashraf|
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is feeding more than half of the world’s population. It is cultivated in almost 114 countries for food, income and employment generation. Ninety percent share of rice production is contributed by the Asian countries. Like other Asian states, it is also the staple food in Pakistan. Ironically, rice production is continuously dwindling due to less effective performance of public and private agricultural extension organizations in capacity building of smallholder farmers regarding weed, insect, and disease management. Therefore, the present study “building capacity of smallholder growers regarding weed management of rice crop: an acid-test for public and private extension services in the Punjab” was designed to improve effectiveness of extension work in the provinces. Gujranwala was selected as the study area because it was the largest rice producing district in the Punjab province. A sample of 342 drawn by using Table developed by Fitz-Gibbon and Morris from the list of 2,365 rice growers registered by public and private sectors in Gujranwala, were interviewed. Data were collected through a well prepared, reliable and validated interview schedule along with observations and focus group discussions. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found that smallholder farmers were mostly relied on chemical management of weeds almost not using biological management. The authors conclude by suggesting that both sectors should focus on biological management of weeds in-order to promote environment friendly agriculture.