PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP) en-US PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH 1815-1094 EFFECTIVENESS OF OUTREACH ORGANIZATIONS IN BUILDING CAPACITY OF SMALLHOLDER RICE GROWERS REGARDING WEED MANAGEMENT Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is feeding more than half of the worlds population. It is cultivated in almost 114 countries for food, income and employment generation. Ninety percent share of rice production is contributed by the Asian countries. Like other Asian states, it is also the staple food in Pakistan. Ironically, rice production is continuously dwindling due to less effective performance of public and private agricultural extension organizations in capacity building of smallholder farmers regarding weed, insect, and disease management. Therefore, the present study building capacity of smallholder growers regarding weed management of rice crop: an acid-test for public and private extension services in the Punjab was designed to improve effectiveness of extension work in the provinces. Gujranwala was selected as the study area because it was the largest rice producing district in the Punjab province. A sample of 342 drawn by using Table developed by Fitz-Gibbon and Morris from the list of 2,365 rice growers registered by public and private sectors in Gujranwala, were interviewed. Data were collected through a well prepared, reliable and validated interview schedule along with observations and focus group discussions. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found that smallholder farmers were mostly relied on chemical management of weeds almost not using biological management. The authors conclude by suggesting that both sectors should focus on biological management of weeds in-order to promote environment friendly agriculture. Umair Talib Ijaz Ashraf Robert Agunga and Saleem Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 315 322 PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM DIFFERENT ALTITUDINAL GRADIENTS OF QUETTA BALOCHISTAN PAKISTAN ON Convolvulus arvensis L. Four wild medicinal and aromatic plants were studied for their allelopathic potential against Convolvulus arvensis. The wild plants were collected from different elevation zones of Quetta, Balochistan. Two species of genus Sophora viz. Sophora mollis (Royel) Baker. and S. alopecuroides L. were collected from Sra Ghurgai (Takatu mountain Range) and University of Balochistan Quetta campus, respectively. While Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. was collected from SraGhurgai and Zarghoon region of different elevation zones and Peganum harmala L. was collected from SraGhurgai (Takatu Mountain Range) and University of Balochistan Quetta Campus. Phytotoxic effect of the four plants was studied at various grades of aqueous extracts i.e 4 and 32% (w/v). To check germination impact and seedling growth of weed C. arvensis L. water-soluble phenolic content and its impact as inhibitory substance was also investigated along with the impact of altitudinal gradient on phenolic concentration and its effects on seed germination of C. arvensis. Water-soluble phenolic contents in the plant extracts were found. Total phenolic contents were higher i.e 0.1220.08 in plants collected from higher altitudes which corresponded with the stronger inhibitory activity on C. arvensis. Total phenolic content was found as S. mollis>P.harmala>P.abrotanoides>S. alopecuroides. Final Germination Percentage of C. arvensis revealed that all tested wild plants leaf aqueous extracts significantly suppressed seed germination. Root and shoot length indicated that increased concentration of all plants extract showed significant reduction of C. arvensis Root and Shoot length. Our results revealed that these wild plants could prove as natural herbicide to control weeds like C. arvensis or serve as a template for synthetic herbicides. Shazia Saeed Alia Ahmed Syed Haider Shah Shah Sania Begum Muhammad Zeeshan and Waheed Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 323 334 PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY AND ROLE OF SOIL NUTRIENTS IN THE SEMI-ARID TRACT OF DISTRICT BANNU KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN Communities are the result of species interactions for the resources. Plant species compete for the resources above and below the soil and ameliorate the environment for neighboring species. In this way superior competitors eliminate the inferior competitive species and affect the phytodiversity of an area. As a result those species sustain which are acclimatized to the prevailing environment. Hence, considering the relative influence of species interactions and an environment on the diversity, we expected variations in the diversity of plant species along the edaphic gradients. We investigated eastern, western and northern sites in the semi-arid area of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, to identify the plant species diversity and its relation with the variation in the selected edaphic variables. We analyzed the soil samples of the three sites for the micro and macro-elements. We used quadrate method to collect the quantitative data of the plant species. Shanoon`s diversity index and similarities among the sites of the plant species was used to analyze the correlation between the diversity and the edaphic variables. Higher importance value index for tree species was computed as compared to shrubs and herbs. We have observed less diversity among the three sites in which western and northern sites have more similarities. We did not find a relationship in the edaphic variables for the macro-elements. However, few micro-elements have shown strong correlation with the diversity. We argue that less diversity may be the result of environmental filtering and anthropogenic activities prevailing in the area. Ihsan Ullah Siraj Ud Din Din Sultan Mehmood Wazir Wazir Saad Ullah Khan Alamgir Khan and Zulqarnain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 335 351 BIOLOGICAL SPECTRA OF LALA KALAY AREA DISTRIST PESHAWAR KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PROVINCE PAKISTAN A study was conducted to assess the floristic composition of Lala Kalay District Peshawar during 2016-17. The floristic diversity consisted of 80 species belonging to 45 families. Asteraceae and Solanaceae were the dominant families each comprised 6 species, followed by Poaceae and Euphorbiaceae (5 species each), Moraceae and Rosaceae (each with 4 species). The rest of the families contributed 1-2 species. Biological spectrum reflected that Therophytes was the dominated life form that contributed 30 species (37.5%), followed by Microphenrophytes (16 species, 20%), nanophanerophytes (14 species, 17.5%) and Caemephytes (8 species, 10%), geophytes (7 species, 8.75%), Phanerophytes (3 species, 3.75%) and Hemicryptophytes (1 species, 1.25%). The leaf spectrum revealed that Microphyll was dominated in the area with 33 species (41.25%), followed by Mesophylls (20 species, 25%) and Nanophyll (18 species, 22.25%),while Leptophylls and Megaphyll were less important (each with 4 species, 5%). Data on biological spectra can be utilized for management of the studied habitat and further assessment for carbon footprint and many other studies. Mehreen Samad Lal Badshah and Shujaul Mulk Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 353 362 A Rare Abnormality in Flower of Orobanche aegyptiaca - A New Report A survey of agricultural fields of Banda district of Uttar Pradesh India was carried out in March 2016. During the survey, authors observed the floral morphology of Orobanche aegyptiaca and found abnormalities in the flowers such as double pistil and eight stamens instead of single pistil and four stamens. Moreover, the normal flowers showed 86.25% viable pollen grains, whereas, the abnormal flowers showed 33.34% pollen viability. To the best of our knowledge, no report so far of abnormalities is found in flowers of O. aegyptiaca. This study is the first report of abnormality in flower of O. aegyptiaca in Banda district of Uttar Pradesh India. Gulwaiz Akhter Tabreiz Ahmad Khan Aiman Zafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 363 366 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF KERI HILLS OF DISTRICT KOTLI AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR PAKISTAN The investigated area has need to protect from pressure of local inhabitants and deforestation. The Floristic composition and vegetation analysis of Keri Charhoi hills were analysed. The study found 66 plants species belonging to 36 families. There were 20 plant communities in spring. The soil texture of studied area was loamy to clay loamy. The total soluble salt ranges from 0.02-0.09%, pH from 7.15-7.62, Organic matter ranges from 0.96- 1.8%, Phosphorus ranges from 2.5-10.5ppm and Potassium ranges from 104-170ppm. 58 species were palatable and 25 species were non-palatable. Index of diversity was 3.10 in spring and species richness was 0.85 in spring. The species richness was low at base and increases again then decreases at high altitude. In spring, only one community was homogenous and remaining 9 were heterogenous. Similarly, in monsoon, 4 communities were homogenous and other 6 were heterogenous. Biological spectrum shows that in spring Megaphanerophytes and Hemicryptophytes were dominant. Leaf size classes were Nanophylls and Microphylls. On the basis of cluster analysis, four associations were detected in Charhoi hills. All communities were immature in both seasons. Nafeesa Zahid Malik Malik Musfirah Anjum Maria Gulraiz Zahid Hussain Malik Malik Qumqum Noshad and Sadia Jehangir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 367 375 EVALUATION OF WHEAT AND WEED GROWTH UNDER DIFFERENT MULCHING AND ORGANIC AMENDMENTS Weeds which seriously threaten wheat production are directly affected by cultural practices and nutrients management. Efficient weeds control in wheat will help to reduce problems associated with it. Different mulching materials were used during the course of the experiment with and without biochar. The experiment consisted of two factors such as Biochar (0 and 5 ton ha-1) and mulching (Control, Plastics, paper and sorghum residues as mulch material) were used in the study. The experiment was conducted during winter 2017-18 at Abdul Wali Khan University research farm in Mardan, Pakistan. All treatments were laid out triplicate in randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement. Biochar was allotted to main plots while mulching treatments were assigned to the sub plots. Wheat variety Siran 2007 was sown on 13th November, 2017. Results showed that different mulching material significantly affected weeds population, fresh and dry weight along with relative water content of weeds. Plastic and sorghum mulching performed better than paper mulching and no mulching. Weeds density was drastically reduced and wheat yield was positively improved in plastic and sorghum mulching compared to no mulching. Biochar significantly compressed weeds population and growth however, wheat yield and growth was also negatively affected by biochar application. Hence, plastic mulching is recommended for efficient weeds control and convincingly wheat yield improvement. Kawsar Ali Syed Ijazul Haq Haq Bushra Habib Ullah Khan Khan Palwasha Iqbal Sajid Ali Asif Nawaz and Hira Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 377 385 COMPOSITION OF WEED SPECTRUM IN WHEAT FIELDS OF DISTRICT MUZAFFAR-GARH PUNJAB PAKISTAN Weed flora was explored in wheat fields of District Muzaffar-Garh (Pakistan) during 2016-17. Studies were accomplished in eight different locations of the district using quadrat method. Weed spectrum varied spatially in most of these towns. The flora comprised 3 monocot and 7 dicot families. Thirteen dicot weed species belonging to 7 families and seven monocot species from three monocot families were identified in the study area. Family Fabaceae from the dicots and Poaceae among the monocots emerged as the largest families each comprising of five weed species. The next dominant family was Chenopodiaceae having 2 species while rest of the families were represented by a single species each. IVCI exhibited that at Kochak Baloch Cyprus-Spergula-Cheopodium community prevailed, while at Chak 54 L a different community Medicago-Melilotus-Rumex has been the predominant. At Fateh Pur site witnessed the superiority of Chenopodium-Lathyrus-Cyperus community, whereas at Saggray Wala Anagallis-Sonchus-Cynodon dominated. Pattal Munda and Rang Pur had overwhelming stands of Chenopodium, Melilotus Rumex community. While Chowk Sarwar Shaheed and Abbasi Chowk were infested with Avena-Poa-Rumex and Angallis-Rumex-Chenopodium communities, respectively. IVCI identified four most important weeds in the Distict Muzaffar Garh, Punjab Pakistan in descending order in wheat fields are Rumex dentatus (64), Chenopodium album (59.5), Anagallis arvensis (58.4) and Melilotus alba (48.6). In order to harvest the optimum yield of wheat proper management of these and other weeds is recommended. Shamim Umer and Mumtaz Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 387 397 RESPONSE OF MAIZE HYBRIDS AND ASSOCIATED WEEDS TO INTEGRATED POTASSIUM APPLICATION Maize (Zea mays L.) has high growth rate, produces large biomass and is highly susceptible to weed completion in its earlier growth stages till canopy closure. A Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during Kharif, 2016. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement was used keeping four replications. It was two factor study i.e. maize hybrids (DK-Garanon, Pioneer-3025, WS-666, and Pioneer-3164) allotted to main plots and potassium ratios (100% organic, 80% organic + 20% inorganic, 60% organic + 40% inorganic, 40% organic + 60% inorganic, 20% organic + 80% inorganic, 100% inorganic and control treatment) assigned to subplots. Potassium (K2O) was applied to field in such an arrangement that 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 and 0% K2O was acquired from the organic source (poultry manure) and the remaining was balanced form inorganic source (sulphate of potash) for supplying a total potassium of 80 kg ha-1. Results indicated that among maize hybrids, lowest weed fresh weight (271.60 g m-2), weed dry weight (80.53 g m-2) with highest emergence m-2 (7.74), 1000 grains weight (291.1 g), and harvest index (32.84%) was recorded for DK-Garanon hybrid whereas more grains ear-1 (496) and rows ear-1 (15) were recorded for Pioneer-3164. Highest weeds fresh (364.20 g m-2) and dry weight (114.4 g m-2) was registered in plots which received 100% K2O as organic source. Highest grains ear-1 (517), 1000 grains weight (300 g), and harvest index (36%) were recorded in plots where 40% K2O was applied from organic and 60% from inorganic source. It can be concluded from the experiment that application of 80 kg K2O ha-1 as 40% organic and 60% inorganic source to maize hybrid DK-Garanon resulted in better yield and yield components. Muhammad Faheem Jan Asad Ali Khan Khan Waqas Liaqat Asim Muhammad and Fahad Ullah Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 399 408 EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AND WEEDS BIOMASS Microorganisms play vital rolе in improving soil properties and enhancing agricultural productivity through nitrogen (N) fixation and phosphorus availability. A Field experiment was laid out at Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during kharif 2016. Randomized complete block (RCB) design was used with split plot arrangement keeping three replications. Three varieties (NM-11, CHK-06 and Ramzan) inoculated with rhizobium strain were allotted to main plots while four phosphorus levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) were designed as sub plots in the form of singlе supеr phosphate (SSP). Phosphorus (P) levels, rhizobium inoculation and varieties significantly (P0.05) affected the performance of mungbean. More days to flowering (48), pods formation (60) and physiological maturity (74) were recorded for Ramzan variety while less days to flowering (46), pod formation (56) and physiological maturity (68) with highest leaves plant-1 (24), branches plant-1 (15), plant height (70 cm), nodules plant-1 (15), pods plant-1 (19), biological yield (2756 kg ha-1), seed yield (842 kg ha-1), weeds fresh (55.7 kg ha-1) and dry weight (22.8 kg ha-1) was recorded for variety NM-11. Among phosphorus levels, more days to flowering (50), pod formation (62) and maturity (74) was recorded in control plot while less days to flowering (43), pod formation (57) and maturity (70) with highest leaves plant-1 (24), branches plant-1 (15), plant height (68.3 cm), nodules plant-1 (17), pods plant-1 (22), biological yield (3063 kg ha-1), seed yield (910 kg ha-1), weeds fresh (64.5 kg ha-1) and dry weight (25.4 kg ha-1) was recorded in plots which received P @ of 90 kg ha-1. Inoculated plots performed better for all the studied parameters than un-inoculated plots. It can be concluded from the experiment that inoculating Mungbean variety NM-11 with rhizobium (Phaseoli) along with P application @ of 90 kg ha-1 resulted in better yield and yield components. Fahad Ullah Khan Khan Asad Ali Khan Khan Muhammad Faheem Jan Waqas Liaqat Inamullah and Shezad Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 409 427 EFFECTS OF THE ROOT BARK EXTRACT OF Monotheca buxifolia (FALC.) A. DC ON ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL AND SERAL PROPERTIES OF RABBIT (Oryctolagus cuniculus) This activity was aimed to examine the phytomedicinal effects of the crude extract of the bark of the root of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC on the serum biochemistry and antioxidant potential of the in-vitro lipids present in various tissues of the rabbits and the overall correlation of the extract and serum lipids. The extract was administered orally to the rabbits in different doses (0, 25, 75 and 150 mg) in triplicate daily for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively. The data showed that the weights of rabbits and their different organs were reduced. Serum cholesterol level of the experimental animal decreased, while no variation in the serum glucose was observed. The histopathology results showed that the central vein had normal endothelial lining with no evidence of pericentral fibrosis. The hepatic cords in almost all cases were well formed. The portal tracts showed branches of hepatic artery, portal veins and cholengioles with normal morphology. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction was observed in the RSA values of the brain, liver and muscles of the subject animals. Increasing the dose reduced the RSA values in all the tissues. It was concluded that this plant has the potency for decreasing weight of the whole body and also decrease the cholesterol level without significantly affecting other parameters. Hence, there are implications for further detailed studies on this plant. Khan Sher Ali Hazrat Muhammad Nisar and Asim Muhammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 428 438