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ISSN 1815-1094 (Print) ISSN 2225-7942 (Online)

Year 2017 , Volume  23, Issue 3
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
NUTRITIONAL STATUS AT PHENOLOGICAL STAGES IN SOME NOXIOUS WEEDS
Tanzeela Ibrahim, Rana Abrar Hussain, Zahar Noreen and Irum Mukhtar

NUTRITIONAL STATUS AT PHENOLOGICAL STAGES IN SOME NOXIOUS WEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Most weeds are palatable and of acceptable quality for animal feed in some areas. Weeds can be high in nitrates so it is prudent to test these plants for feed quality as alternative fodder. Present study was aimed to investigate the nutritional potential of five noxious weed species (Solanum nigrum, Parthenium hysterophorous, Agertum conizoids, Ranunculus sclerosis and Brasssica nigra) at three phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and post-reproductive), which are commonly grazed by livestock in Rajowal, district Okara. Whole weed plants (except root) were collected, cleaned, dried and then ground into powder form. Dried weed powder was used for proximate analysis. Resultsexhibited that S. nigrum, P. hysterophorous, A. conizoids, R. sclerosis and B. nigra have varying level of nutritional values at three phenological stages. These weed showed appreciable range of moisture (77.15-88.37 %), fibre (0.48-8.82%), fats (5.12-8.53%), protein (10.02-27.15%) carbohydrate (40.18-65.5%) and ash (22.71-10.3%) at three phenological stages It can be concluded that S. nigrum, P. hysterophorous, A. conizoids, R. sclerosis and B. nigra weeds are good source of nutrition, however, cannot be recommended as alternative to conventional fodder crops, as these weeds are reported to contain harmful compounds.

255-270 Download
2
YIELD AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF Pleurotus ostreatus (JACQ. FR.) CULTIVATED UPON VARIOUS WEEDS AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES
Waqar Islam and Asif Riaz

YIELD AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF Pleurotus ostreatus (JACQ. FR.) CULTIVATED UPON VARIOUS WEEDS AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES
ABSTRACT:
Oyster mushrooms are fleshy edible fungi which have acquired huge importance due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. These mushrooms are cultivated upon various substrates which directly affect their yield and biological efficiency. So the present experiment was designed to study different weeds, agricultural wastes and their mixtures for understanding their efficacy in enhancing yield and biological efficiency of oyster mushrooms. The yield of mushrooms was calculated up to three flushes while biological efficiency was recorded upon dry weight basis. Our results illustrated that cotton waste showed better performance as substrate as it yielded maximum oyster mushrooms in all the three flushes followed by Chenopodium album and mixture of cotton waste + Chenopodium album. These substrates also provided better results regarding Biological efficiency of the mushrooms by recording 92.90%, 83.34% and 75.77%, respectively. Hence, we conclude that Chenopodium album alone or mixture of particular weed and cotton waste can be utilized for efficient cultivation of mushrooms.

271-279 Download
3
ASSESSING THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF CARFENTRAZONE ETHYL + CLODINAFOP PROPARGYL + METSULFURON METHYL WITH UREA AS AN ADJUVANT AGAINST WEEDS IN WHEAT
Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Suleman, Ahsan Aziz, Rao Muhammad Ikram and Nabeel Ahmad Ikram

ASSESSING THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF CARFENTRAZONE ETHYL + CLODINAFOP PROPARGYL + METSULFURON METHYL WITH UREA AS AN ADJUVANT AGAINST WEEDS IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
A field trial was conducted to check the feasibility of using urea as an adjuvant with formulated carfentrazone ethyl + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron- methyl (FMC X100) herbicide against the weeds of wheat. The experiment comprised of eight treatments namely, weedy check (control), hand weeding (two times), carfentrazone ethyl + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron-methyl @ 500 g ha-1(commercial product dose) and@ 375 g ha-1 each with 1 and 2% urea solution. All weed control treatments showed significant effect in reducing the individual, total weed density and weed dry weight. However, maximum reduction in total weed density and weight was recorded with hand weeding and reduced dose (375 g ha-1) of herbicide with 2% urea as an adjuvant, respectively. The yield and yield components like spike bearing tillers, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight were significantly increased with different herbicide treatments compared with weedy check. More wheat grain yield (4.08 t ha-1) was obtained from carfentrazone ethyl + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron @ 375 g ha-1+ 2% urea treated plot and the manual hoeing (3.99 t ha-1) than the weedy check (3.13 t ha-1). Maximum increase in wheat grain yield was 30.35% by the use of carfentrazone ethyl + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron-methyl @ 375 g ha-1 + 2% urea solution. It is concluded that carfentrazone ethyl + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron-methyl can be applied @ 375 g ha-1 + 2% urea solution to get maximum weed control and grain yield of wheat.

281-290 Download
4
ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS GROWING IN THE MAIZE FIELDS AT CHAGHAR MATTI, DISTRICT PESHAWAR
Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Asad Ullah, Lal Badshah and Muhammad Hamayun

ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS GROWING IN THE MAIZE FIELDS AT CHAGHAR MATTI, DISTRICT PESHAWAR
ABSTRACT:
Fourty six (46) species belongs to 21 families were reported from the maize crop at Chaghar Matti, District Peshawar. Poaceae was the dominant family with 12 species followed by Solanaceae with 5 species and Euphorbiaceae 4 species. The remaining families were represented by 3 or less than 3 species each. Fourty three (43)taxa are used for various purposes i.e. fodder(17 spp.), wound healing (9 spp.), ear pain (4spp.), fever and itching (2 spp.) and (1 sp.); as vegetable and for ornamental purpose. In term of usage whole plant was frequent part used (46.51%), leaves (37.20%), roots (6.97%), fruit, latex, shoot (4.65%) seed and flower (2.32%).Therophytes (80.43%) was the dominant life form class and microphylls (39.13%) was the dominant leaf size class. The phenology revealed that 31 species were in reproductive stage, in which 20 were at fruiting and 15 were in vegetative stage.Abundance status showed that13.04% weeds were very abundant, 17.39% abundant, 34.78% infrequent, 28.26% rare and 6.52% were found to be very rare. It was observed that most of the weeds were annual if physical eradicationat vegetative stage is carried out then the growth and reproduction of these weeds can be easily controlled.

291-301 Download
5
MULCHING AND HERBICIDES AFFECT WEED DENSITY AND YIELD OF CHILIES
Abdur Rab, Muhammad Sajid, Mustafa Kamal, Khalid Nawab and Rahmatullah

MULCHING AND HERBICIDES AFFECT WEED DENSITY AND YIELD OF CHILIES
ABSTRACT:
The influence of mulching and herbicides on weed density and yield of chilieswas investigated in a two years experiment at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The pre-emergence herbicides (Dual gold and Stomp) were applied either alone or in combination with mulches of wheat's straw, transparent polyethene, and black polythene in comparison with weedy check. The mulching and pre-emergence herbicides significantly affected the growth and yield of chili and the weeds’ density, fresh and dry biomass. The least plant height (72.65 cm), branches per plant (52.29) and yield (3.21 t ha-1) of chili in control plants increased and were the maximum of 84.55 cm, 59.41, 52.33 and 4.51 t. ha-1 with the application of Stomp. The mean across mulches revealed the least plant height (67.57 cm), branches per plant (45.44) and yield (3.21 t. ha-1) in control plants that increased to the maximum of 86.43 cm, 66.32, 53.86 and 4.51 t. ha-1 with black polythene mulch treatment. By contrast, the mean weed density (47.35 m-2), weeds’ fresh weight (1366.45g) and weeds’ dry matter (27.53%) in control plots decreased with pre-emergence herbicidesand was the minimum of 24.81 m-2, 610.52 g and 25.19% accordingly in plots treated with Stomp. The mean across mulches revealed that the density (63.35 m-2), fresh weight (1401.08 g) and dry matter (29.13%) of weeds in control plants declined to the least of 16.82 m-2, 64.63 g and 20.01% with black polythene mulch treatment, respectively. The interaction of mulches and herbicides significantly affected the yield, weed density, weeds fresh weight and weeds dry matter percentage. The minimum yield (1.92 t. ha-1), but the maximum weeds density (97.81 m-2), weeds fresh weight (249.56 g) and weed dry matter (31.39%) were recorded in control plants. By contrast, Black Polythene Mulch+ Stomp treatments resulted in the highest yield (5.91 t. ha-1) and the least weeds density (9.78 m-2), weeds fresh weight (373.63 g) and weeds dry matter percentage (17.55%).

303-314 Download
6
EFFECT OF VARIOUS PH AND SALINITY LEVELS OF WATER ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Typha latifolia L.
Ijaz Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Bilal, Bakhtiar Gul, Haroon Khan and Baharullah Khattak

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PH AND SALINITY LEVELS OF WATER ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Typha latifolia L.
ABSTRACT:
Two laboratory based experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of various pH and salinity levels of soil on the germination and growth of common cattail (Typha latifolia L.) at the Department of Weed Science, University of Agriculture, Peshawar - Pakistan during November, 2016. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. Experiment - 1 evaluated the effects of various pH levels of water and experiment - 2 evaluated various salinity levels of water on germination and shoot growth of common cattail. Results showed the pH levels to significantly affect seed germination and shoot growth of common cattail. Least seed germination (13.33 %) and least shoot growth (61.11 mm) was noted in water pH 10 and water pH 9. While highest seed germination (52.00 %) and highest shoot growth (86.67 mm) were recorded in water pH 4 and pH 5. In case of salinity the least seeds germination (0.10 %) and shoot growth (0.23 mm) was noted for the highest water salinity level (12 g L-1) followed by 10 g L-1. While maximum germination (80.67 %) and Shoot growth (74.44 mm) were observed in control and in minimum salinity (2 g L-1). It can be concluded that alkaline conditions (high pH) and high salinity highly affected germination and growth of common cattails. These results can be utilized in devising a non-chemical and environmentally safe and ecological control program for cattails management. This approach can be integrated with other weed control strategies for achieving maximum cattail control.

315-321 Download
7
WEED FLORA OF AMIR MUHAMMAD KHAN CAMPUS MARDAN, PAKISTAN
Ijaz Ahmad, Fazal Munsif, Wiqar Ahmad and Sultan Akber

WEED FLORA OF AMIR MUHAMMAD KHAN CAMPUS MARDAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted at Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtankhwa-Pakistan during flowering season i.e spring 2015 to explore different weeds of the area taxonomically. Amir Muhammad Khan campus is a sub-campus of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtankhwa-Pakistan, located in Mardan presently at the Regional Institute for Teacher Education (RITE) building in Pabani village. During the study many terrestrial weeds were considered for data recording and plant collection. The research area was lush green due to its location near the agricultural fields for crops. Collected, properly preserved and pasted plants on herbarium sheets were submitted to the AMK campus Mardan for ready reference for the students. During the study 19 weeds species belonging to 19 genera were collected from the research area. These genera can be placed in 12 families of Angiosperms belonging to both Dicot and Monocot classes. Dicot group of Angiosperms was dominant by recording more (11 families) as compared only one monocot. Among the dicots, maximum weeds (4) were reported for Asteraceae (Compositae) followed by Papilionaceae (3). Remaining 9 families were represented by one genus and one species each and they were Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Apiaceae, Oxallidaceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Convolvulaceae and Chenopodiaceae. The present research work is a preliminary study towards the identification, classification and organization of a weed flora of the research area, which could be in the same way useful for both botanists as well as weed scientists.

323-336 Download
8
ECONOMICS OF POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR CONTROL OF WEEDS IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)
Abdur Rashid, Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi, Muhammad Mansoor and Muhammad Yaqoob

ECONOMICS OF POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR CONTROL OF WEEDS IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)
ABSTRACT:
Experiment was commenced to conclude the effect of diverse herbicides for weeds control in wheat crop during 2014 - 2015. The treatments including control (T1), Buctril Super (T2), Bromoxynil (T3), Austrian-M (T4), Segal (T5) and Dormic (6), and were arranged in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with three replications at Arid Zone Research Farm, D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data on the grain yield and yield components of wheat indicated that all the treatments of herbicides effectively controlled the weeds and provided conducive environment for growth of the crop that increased the growth and grain yield of the crop. The number of grains spike-1and thousand grains weight was significantly increased in all the treatments of herbicides compared to the control. The highest yield of grain was obtained in the treatment of Buctril Super where weeds were completely killed compared to all other treatments of herbicides. An economic analysis showed that the benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of the treatment Buctril Super was higher. Thus, Buctril super at 750 mL ha-1 proved to be the useful herbicide for weed control in wheat.

337-342 Download
9
IMPACT OF CROP ROW ORIENTATION ON WEED DENSITY AND BIOMASS AND YIELD OF WHEAT
Fazal Munsif, Faryal, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Ijaz Ahmad, Wiqar Ahmad, Wasiullah Malik and Muhammad Rabnawaz Khan

IMPACT OF CROP ROW ORIENTATION ON WEED DENSITY AND BIOMASS AND YIELD OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Improved agronomic practices must be taken in consideration for increasing yield per unit area. Hence, row orientation such as east-west and north-south along with traditional broadcast method were compared to find out best methods not for only reduction of weeds but also for increase in yield of wheat. The study was carried out in RCB design replicated three times at research garden in The University of Agriculture, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan during Rabi 2014-15. The findings of the study indicated that best results were obtained in term of lower weed density, its fresh and dry weight for either E-W row direction or broadcast compared to N-S rows direction. On the other hand, yield of wheat crop was reduced under traditional broadcast method compared to either E-W or N-S orientation however the yield was higher when the crop row were in east-west direction than north- south row direction. From the results obtained, it is conclude that the crop sowing in E-W orientation had not only reduced weeds and its biomass but also improved yield and yield components of wheat as compared to N-S row orientation and broadcast. The cultivation of wheat in east west orientation is viable option for not only environment friendly but also for the reduction of cost of production.

343-350 Download
10
COST BENEFIT RATIO OF SELECTIVE DIVERSE BROAD SPECTRUM HERBICIDES TO COMBAT WEEDS IN WHEAT CROP
Noor Muhammad, Zia Mehmood, Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Abdul Ghafar, Memoona Shehzadi and Hafiz Muhammad Akram

COST BENEFIT RATIO OF SELECTIVE DIVERSE BROAD SPECTRUM HERBICIDES TO COMBAT WEEDS IN WHEAT CROP
ABSTRACT:
Broad spectrum herbicides effects were contemplated for weed control and their response on yield and yield components of wheat crop in Pakistan. The diverse treatments of the herbicides were applied along with the control to check the efficacy of herbicides action towards the maximization in grain yield and yield related traits of wheat crop. Different traits relating yield and yield contributing traitswere recorded like plant height, spike length and biological yield. The results showed that application of herbicides in field enhanced significant increase in grain yield by minimizing the weeds density. The herbicides Atlantis, Dhanik, Edit, Sulfon resulted in 93.97 to 96.30 % weed mortality. The data on number of fertile tillers m-2, number of spikelets spike-1, 1000-grain weight, number of grains spike-1 and grain yield also gave significant results. The highest yield of 4970 kg ha-1was achieved by the use of herbicide Atlantis followed by Dhanik(4848 kg ha-1). In economic analysis, the herbicides Atlantis provided the premier net return of Rs.43970 ha-1followed as Dhanik (Rs.40435 ha-1) Edit (Rs.33374ha-1) and Sulfon (Rs.32695 ha-1). Highest cost benefit ratio was also given by the herbicides Atlantis (1.37%), followed by Dhanik (1.34%) and Edit (1.28%) while minimum cost benefit ratio was given by Zenter Super.

351-360 Download
11
INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZER AND ALLELOPATHIC WATER EXTRACTS ON MAIZE AND ASSOCIATED WEEDS
Muhammad Kamran, Ali Raza, Qasim Ali, Hafiz Haider Ali and Muhammad Sohaib Chattha

INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZER AND ALLELOPATHIC WATER EXTRACTS ON MAIZE AND ASSOCIATED WEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathic crop water extracts of sorghum, sunflower and brassica may affect the growth and yield of maize and its associated weeds. Soil fertility status can influence the behavior of allelochemicals. To investigate these aspects present studies was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during autumn 2009. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. A mixture of three water extracts i.e. sorghum, sunflower and brassica each at 15 L ha-1 were applied as foliar sprays, once (7 Days after sowing), twice (7 and 30 DAS) and thrice (7, 30 and 52 DAS) in plots with no fertilizer and plots receiving NPK fertilizer at 175+100+60 kg ha-1. And a control receiving no fertilizer plus no allelopathic spray was maintained. Three sprays of water extracts in fertilized plots suppressed the weeds population and dry weight by 85% and 55% respectively. The suppression effect of three sprays of water extracts in fertilized plots on the fresh and dry mass of horse purslane was significantly more by 75% and 54% respectively over control. Grain yield was significantly higher (82%) in two sprays of water extracts with fertilizer. However, it was uneconomical due to high costs that vary and hence two sprays of water extracts became economical with 49% increase in maize grain yield and also had highest MRR (3514%) as compared to control.

361-378 Download

Contact Information


Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan
The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
Phone: +92 91 2233454 Mobile: +92 0300 87909876
Email: hassanpk_2000pk@yahoo.com
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